Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Internet

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Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Internet

Unread post by henkg » Sun May 27, 2012 12:35 pm

Why this post?
Over and over again new users are asking the same questions. I am getting a bit annoyed, do some reading first. However, a NAS is becoming more and more a standard household device, so these questions will recur and occur more and more.
Any expert remarks? Please PM me, and I will modify this post.


Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Internet.
EZ-internet is just a Synology DSM tool that changes routersettings (forwarding routerports to the DS) automatically. It does not make any changes in DSM itself. If EZ-internet does not support your router, you will have to do this portforwarding manually, directly in the router.
Clumsy? No, not for me. I want to know, and control which ports are open, to restrict unnecessary remote access.

Presuppositions:
- You know how to log in into your router, see the router manual. Remember the first three groups of digits, mostly 192.168.0. or 192.168.1.

Portforwarding: why?
Your router is connected to the internet with the WAN-port. The router decides to what LAN-device incoming internet traffic over a specific port should be sent ("routed") to. To your NAS or to your PC, laptop? Both are connected to the router. How does the router know where to send to. Therefore it needs to know the address of that LAN-device (the LAN-IP). This is what portforwarding is all about.

Why make the LAN-IP of your NAS static?
This LAN-IP will later be set in the router. Therefore it must not change after a router- or NAS reboot.

How to make your NAS LAN-IP static (it probably is already)?
DSM | Control Panel | Network. Tab Network interface.
If the setting is 'Get network configuration automatically': Choose 'manual configuration', and enter a LAN-IP, something like 192.168.0.201 (or 192.168.1.201). And apply.
After this, the NAS will always use this LAN-IP. Be sure that this LAN-IP is not used by any other device in your LAN.
Remember the fourth group of digit(s).
(If your router is set to DHCP, best choose a static IP outside the DHCP range (but within the same subnet, the first three groups of digits should be the same), or at least a high IP within that range. Then other connected devices that obtain a DHCP address cannot not "steal" that IP.)

Portforwarding: how?
Information on how to do this for your specific router brand/model can be found on: http://portforward.com/
One important remark: portforwarding.com advises to forward all ports that theoretically might be of use with Synology for remote access.
In some cases portforward.com even states that a specific router cannot be used with Synology. Probably because that router has a limited maximum of forward rules. Normally a maximum of only 10 rules is enough, so ignore the "This router will not allow you to forward enough ports". Almost any router should work fine.

I strongly advice to forward only the ports that you really need for remote access. Within your LAN, not one port needs to be forwarded.

Standard ports:
- For DSM: 5000 and/or 5001 (5000 for http, 5001 for https)
- For Filestation: 7000 and/or 7001 (7000 for http, 7001 for https)
- For webserver (and Photostation): 80
- For FTP: 21. You also need to open some additional ports.

(For more apps/services and their ports: http://www.synology.com/support/faq_sho ... 9&lang=enu
These are the first standard steps. For more advanced use: check more detailed posts)

About remote access to DSM. Do not forward this port if you don't need remote access to DSM. Anyone who guesses your password (the username admin is known already) can have full admin access to your DS. Same for Filestation or FTP: If you do not need remote access, don't forward these ports. Otherwise: have a really strong password for admin, and other remote users.

How to test remote access?
Some (many?) routers can not handle loopback. You have to test remote access from outside. The internet connection of a neighbour, a friend (better not test from your office: office port restrictions / proxy problems might give you the wrong conclusions).
Last edited by henkg on Sun Aug 12, 2012 8:54 am, edited 11 times in total.
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Agreed!

Unread post by myCloud » Sun May 27, 2012 1:58 pm

Nice job. ez-Internet is a noble effort, but there are a gazillion different router models with almost as many user interfaces and Synology isn't going to be able to support them all. From what I read here, it doesn't even get some of the ones it does support right. It's far better to learn and configure your own router.

Let me address your standard port list. THIS IS ALSO AN ADDENDUM TO THE ABOVE for those who want more information than the basics.

By default, File Station uses ports 5000/5001, as do DSM, DS finder, Audio Station, DS audio, Download Station, Surveillance Station, and DS cam. Port forwarding 5000 and 5001 covers all these.

These are optional and not required:
File Station CAN also use 7000/7001 (or other ports) if enabled in Control Panel -> Application Portal.
Download Station CAN also use 8000/8001 (or other ports) if enabled in Control Panel -> Application Portal.
Audio Station CAN also use 8800/8801 (or other ports) if enabled in Control Panel -> Application Portal.
Surveillance Station CAN also use 9900/9901 (or other ports) if enabled in Control Panel -> Application Portal.

The DS file app and CalDAV service NEED webDAV enabled and that uses ports 5005 (http) and 5006 (https) by default. Make sure to enable HTTPS when enabling WebDAV in Control Panel -> webDAV. These ports also need to be port-forwarded if used.

New users, especially those who access the DiskStation from an unencrypted wireless network (wifi), should consider it mandatory to use HTTPS, enabling it and redirecting to it in Control Panel -> DSM Settings -> HTTP Service, and configuring DS apps to use it on the HTTPS port. While ports other than 5000/5001 can be chosen here, it's far better to leave these alone set up a VPN server if security is a real concern.

Port 80 (https) and port 443 (https) are used for PhotoStation, Mail Station, and Web Station. HTTPS is enabled for these in Control Panel -> Web Services -> HTTP Service (IIRC, you also have to enable it in PhotoStation and Mail Station). Redirecting http to https with these requires "mods" and preventing search engine robots from indexing them requires use of deny all to all robots.txt files. Port 80 (and 8080) is the most hit port, so forward it only after forethought. Consider activating an alternate port in the control panel above and directly port forwarding it from outside to the DiskStation. The downside is the alternate port uses only http Or you could port-forward a non-standard external port to port 80 or 443 on the DiskStation in the router. The downside to doing this to port 443 is you have to remember to use https://

PPTP and OpenVPN need port 1723 and port 1194, respectively. If you use a VPN, you don't need to forward 5000/5001 or other ports. Because each was a vulnerable Microsoft port, 5000 and 5001 are usually scanned by vulnerability assessors.

Let me agree with your mandate for a robust admin password.

This cannot be overstated. It should, as a minimum, consist of 8 characters, and use uppercase, lowercase, number(s), and punctuation. It's better to use the first letter of the words of a phrase rather than words, and substitute numbers or punctuation for words, i.e. 4 instead of for, 2 instead of to, and so on.

Let me add that admin login should be used as a last resort, only for administration. You should have a non-admin user account you use for day-to-day use of the DiskStation.
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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by Onlycris » Mon Jun 18, 2012 6:59 am

Hi, you folks might understand this stuff, but I still have an expensive paperweight. I have been reading sooo much and without the ez internet I have not been able to make my DS212 work. I have been waiting since June 4 for a response for help. I must say that that the above information is concise. But had I known the amount of techy knowledge required for setup--I would not have bought it. I have a 2wire dsl 2701 hg-b and airport extreme. The airport is in bridge mode right now. So, first off, do you connect the Ds212 to the dsl router or the airport or does it matter? Right now it is connected to Airport. Static ip ok got that done...somehow. Have even tried to have the dsl in bridge mode and airport do the router work--was not able to get online with that--missing something. Finally did learn about mac address vs ip addresses and static vs range. Cloud works..sometimes. Yes, I really have to learn every step in step by step.
Any other suggestions?

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by myCloud » Mon Jun 18, 2012 12:06 pm

Onlycris, check your PMs.
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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by Onlycris » Wed Jun 20, 2012 6:24 am

Ok been working on this and I have been able to get a port open on the 2wiregateway--but it is the apple airport which is in bridge mode is stopping traffic. Did test--gateway open--apple not but synology is compatible with apple extreme. You would think, open ports in dsl, have DS212 connected to apple airport and then ez internet would work--NOT. now what. have been looking for new router so that I will end up with ONE router dsl thingy. Now, I did something and can not sign into the MY DS Center either get this message:
Warning: pg_connect(): Unable to connect to PostgreSQL server: could not connect to server: Connection timed out Is the server running on host "192.168.1.8" and accepting TCP/IP connections on port 5432? in /volume1/web/support/adodb/drivers/adodb-postgres64.inc.php on line 662 Database connection failed

What does that mean?? And now the cloud--can not sign into that either.....what next

BTW thank for the PMs I am trying everything.....still working on it.....aaargg

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by myCloud » Wed Jun 20, 2012 11:42 am

MyDS can't reach your DiskStation using the internal local IP address. It needs the external IP address. It typically gets that from your DDNS connection. Control Panel -> EZ Cloud -> Service Provider: Synology, Register now button (assuming Synology's servers are working, which they don't appear to be doing now.

You must have the router AT&T provided you with connected to your UVERSE entry. If you want more than 100 baseT wired and 802.11g, you have to plug something like the AirPort Extreme router input into the UVERSE router output, and plug the DiskStation and other computers into the AirPort Extreme router. Configure the AirPort Extreme to connect to the UVERSE router with DHCP.

You then need to turn off the slow wireless in the UVERSE router and use the faster wireless in the AirPort Extreme.

If you want to use the UVERSE router for DHCP and port-forwarding, you have to put the Airport Extreme into Network -> Router Mode: Off (bridged mode). That turns off its DHCP server and NATing.

If you want to use the AirPort Extreme router for DHCP and port-forwarding, you must configure the UVERSE router to put the AirPort Extreme in its DMZ and configure the latter for Network -> Router Mode: DHCP and NAT. DMZ mode passes the ISP's assigned IP address through to the AirPort Extreme and turns off the firewall in the UVERSE router, letting the AirPort Extreme do all the firewalling.
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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by Onlycris » Thu Jun 21, 2012 2:20 am

That is what I have also been trying to do..the latter-If you want to use the AirPort Extreme router for DHCP and port-forwarding, you must configure the UVERSE router to put the AirPort Extreme in its DMZ and configure the latter for Network -> Router Mode: DHCP and NAT. DMZ mode passes the ISP's assigned IP address through to the AirPort Extreme and turns off the firewall in the UVERSE router, letting the AirPort Extreme do all the firewalling.
I keep running to questions about either DNS numbers or some IP type numbers and since I do not understand what I am doing--have not guessed correctly yet--like I said--I am a novice to networking.

Of course I do not like the 2701 2wiregateway(BTW--I do NOT have Uverse older DSL)--that is why I added the airport--ok not the best router in the world. Ok I give up!! I have been looking at new router--do you think that includes the DSL modem. This way only one network to deal with!! That way I can use ez internet program.
And thank you so much for your suggestions--sorry I can not seem to be able to make them work.
Update: Well got it to work!! Turned off reset airport and reset DS212, the AT&T 2 wiregateway-DMZ to airport kept wireless up. Turned on reset airport(5.6)also new options appeared, created wireless network of existing network. then turned off 2wiregateway wireless network and now one wireless network and airport handles firewall and DHC? ad NAT stuff. Turned on the DS212 EZ internet now saw the apple airport and Ta Da! Thank you again for you help.
Last edited by Onlycris on Sun Jun 24, 2012 3:46 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by jcsepm » Thu Jun 21, 2012 5:13 pm

Ok, I have just enough knowledge to be dangerous but not enough knowledge to be effective. Could use some guidance and suggestions on how to get this to work.

I have an Actiontec router (from Verizon) that bridges my network to the outside world. Behind the Actiontec I have a Dlink DIR-655 to allow me gigabit speed on my LAN. The network cable from the Actiontec router is plugged into the WAN port on the Dlink. I don't believe I changed any settings on the Actiontec router and I don't have any issues with accessing the Internet from behind the Dlink router (essentially I created a separate subnet). My DS1512+ is also behind the Dlink.

So my question is this...do I have to forward the ports on my Actiontec router to my Dlink router and then configure the Dlink router to forward them to the DS (I think of that as a port forwarding chain)? Or do I just need to worry about forwarding the ports on one of the routers (which one?) and would I have a problem if the DS is on a different subnet than my Actiontec router?

As an aside I'm debating just buying the latest version of the Actiontec which will do gigabit so I wouldnt need the separate subnet anymore. FYI I created the separate subnet because my gigabit LAN cards weren't booting gigabit speeds (which I assumed was due to non-gigabit devices on the original subnet).

This next question may be slightly off topic but specific to Jumbo frames, my understanding is that all devices on a given network need to be configured to the same JF value in order for it to work. How does this work if I have non-GigE devices on the Lan (eg. Sony Bluray player)?

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by ppsy » Wed Jul 04, 2012 4:28 pm

henkg wrote:Why this post?
Over and over again new users are asking the same questions.


Great post, lots of information in 1 single place, helps better understand this topic. Thanks. Definitely a "Dummies Guide to security for your Synology NAS" would be very helpful (say a 10 page pdf).

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by grumpygeologist » Sun Aug 05, 2012 4:35 am

I'm sorry you are so tired of all us minions asking the same questions over and over but perhaps you should give the search engine of this forum a little test drive. I have a problem with EZ-Internet where it gets to the point of identifying the right router (Dlink 655) but on clicking NEXT it throws an error "Connection failed. Please check your network settings." Eh? Exactly what network settings should I check - everything is working well except for the Syno unit. Even FTP works - but can't set anything else up. So what exactly is wrong with my network and what exactly do I look for to check - vague error messages - the bane of my existence.

So, when I entered this forum, I searched on EZ-Internet - no such entry exists. EZ - no such entry exists. Connection failed - no such entry exists. Had the same trouble several days ago trying to install two WD red drives (which you certified to be compatible with a 210J) but caused the unit to cycle several times and shut down - repeatedly. Couldn't even find western digital, WD or WD red on your search engine. The only thing I found after reading a bunch of threads was some other people were having a "similar" problem with different drives and were told by one of the mods to RTFM - EXCEPT THAT ISSUE IS NOT IN THE FM! You wouldn't believe how suprised I was when I entered this block of threads and found the first words were EZ-INTERNET. What!!!

Oh yes, I solved my own issue with the WD Reds - since nobody jumped up to help. Search for it.

So, instead of getting tired of answering the same question over and over - find out why people are having the same problems and asking the same questions over and over. Perhaps you might have set up a little tutorial of how to set up a router instead of pointing people to a table of ports - which they STILL DON'T KNOW WHERE OR HOW TO ENTER THEM in the right place in their routers. Simple show and tell works - lengthy explanations and whining about us amateurs doesn't.

I am annoyed because I wasted the better part of several days and several more evenings trying to resolve my problems without little success. I really like the Syno products and have promoted and recommended them to at least 6 other purchasers - I have 2 myhself. So don't forget that us amateurs help you by telling others about our good - or bad - experiences and promoting your products. Don't diss us as a waste of your time. --- And yes, after reading a ton of threads it is obvious that there are a lot of questions that could have been answered by reading the manusl - and there always will be.

Just my $0.02 and worth every penny you paid for it.

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by henkg » Sun Aug 05, 2012 7:08 am

I am just a fellow end user, just like you. So this is not MY forum. This is a user forum, for and by! end users, sharing information that is not clear or even obsolete in the Synology manual.
I contributed, trying to explain the "why" about port forwarding. For two reasons:
- Synology EZ-Internet does not support all router/firmware combinations.
- I think it is important to know and understand which doors (ports) are opened to the outside world, and could be a security risk.
The "how" question is answered with a link to portforwarding.com. Copying all information of hundreds of different routers into my post would be infeasible and foolish.

Your reply makes me wonder if I should continue to use my leisure time (quite more than two cents) trying to help out other end users.
Last edited by henkg on Thu Sep 27, 2012 6:13 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by begunfx » Tue Aug 07, 2012 12:29 am

I feel your frustration. As henkg said, this is a user forum not a Synology support forum. I personally think that Synology should be at least a little involved on this forum, but I guess that's for another topic.

As for port forwarding. Yes it can be real frustrating, and as henkg, and mycloud stated can be complicated to solve as there are so many different network scenarios out there. When I setup my first Synology server, I had run into roadblocks to figure out why I couldn't get access to my server from the outside. Before you get frustrated and want to throw your DS at the wall (figuratively speaking - hopefully). What I did is research here and on google the typical steps involved that were required to get WAN access. The parts include: ports on the DS that you want to forward on your router, those ports then need to be forwarded on the router itself. Either a static IP from your ISP or a DNS service (synology is free or use someone like DynDNS.org) which then needs to be setup on the DS, and this was the kicker/big one for me! Make sure you don't have any devices between your router and the internet that have a firewall on! In my setup I had an Ooma (which is a VoiceIP phone) in between my modem and the router (for QoS), the modem and the router. My modem came with a router built into it, even though I didn't use it and had it disabled. It turns out the both my ooma AND my modem (motorola surfboard 3.0) had firewalls enabled. So I first moved my ooma out of that chain, and then setup DMZ on the modem. That way, only my router's firewall was enabled and the ports needed to pass to the DS could work. DMZ basically deactivates any firewall and will allow ALL traffic to pass through. If you are having trouble with forwarding, sometimes you can test to see if traffic is getting through, by turning on DMZ on your modem and router to see if your DS can be seen outside (make sure not to leave this active!).

I hope some of that helped. Again, please remember that we are all users here trying to help each other out. Try to be as specific as you can with your trouble / troubleshooting, and be courteous and patient and someone one here will try to help. We all want the best possible product and experience with Synology, that's why we are here.

Cheers.
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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by begunfx » Tue Aug 07, 2012 12:40 am

jcsepm wrote:Ok, I have just enough knowledge to be dangerous but not enough knowledge to be effective. Could use some guidance and suggestions on how to get this to work.

I have an Actiontec router (from Verizon) that bridges my network to the outside world. Behind the Actiontec I have a Dlink DIR-655 to allow me gigabit speed on my LAN. The network cable from the Actiontec router is plugged into the WAN port on the Dlink. I don't believe I changed any settings on the Actiontec router and I don't have any issues with accessing the Internet from behind the Dlink router (essentially I created a separate subnet). My DS1512+ is also behind the Dlink.

So my question is this...do I have to forward the ports on my Actiontec router to my Dlink router and then configure the Dlink router to forward them to the DS (I think of that as a port forwarding chain)? Or do I just need to worry about forwarding the ports on one of the routers (which one?) and would I have a problem if the DS is on a different subnet than my Actiontec router?

As an aside I'm debating just buying the latest version of the Actiontec which will do gigabit so I wouldnt need the separate subnet anymore. FYI I created the separate subnet because my gigabit LAN cards weren't booting gigabit speeds (which I assumed was due to non-gigabit devices on the original subnet).

This next question may be slightly off topic but specific to Jumbo frames, my understanding is that all devices on a given network need to be configured to the same JF value in order for it to work. How does this work if I have non-GigE devices on the Lan (eg. Sony Bluray player)?

jcsepm,
as I had posted previous, try going into the settings of your Actiontec router (if you don't know how, try looking on google for web address of that particular model router). Look in there for a DMZ settings. enter the IP address of your other router, that way all traffic from the internet will be allowed to pass through to your second router. Just make sure that router has a firewall enabled. Then just port forward on that second router and setup DNS.

Hope that helps.

Regards.
DS412+/4.2-3202/4x2tb Hitachi (SHR/Raid5)
DS1812+/4.2-3202/8x4tb Hitachi (SHR2/Raid6)

APC:
Smart-UPS 1500/AP9630 UPS Network Management Card/RS BR1500LCD/BR1000G

Netgear:
GS724T-300 - ProSafe® 24-port Gigabit Smart Switch
Readynas Pro Pioneer RNDP600E 6x2tb Hitachi (XRaid2/Raid6)
NV+/4x1tb WD (XRaid/Raid5)

Win7 64bit:
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Boot Drive: WD 2x1TB 10k RPM (Raid1)/Data Drive: Hitachi 4x2TB 7.2k RPM (Raid5)

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by Boss77 » Fri Sep 14, 2012 2:24 am

I found the tutorial very helpful. Thanks!

[Your reply makes me wonder if I should continue to use my leisure time (quite more than two cents) trying to help out other end users.[/quote]

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Re: Why and how to forward routerports without using EZ-Inte

Unread post by iainb » Wed Sep 26, 2012 8:52 pm

Yay, my request for this to be stickied worked!
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